In this week's “Social Media Roundup,” you will learn about the Facebook a rumor about hour-long Instagram videos, Yahoo Messenger shutting down, you stay up-to-date on all the important social media news you need to know. This means Facebook will be working with publishers such as Rovio. Yahoo! Answers is a community-driven question-and-answer (Q&A) website or a knowledge market from Yahoo!, that allows users to both submit questions to. Yahoo! is a web services provider headquartered in Sunnyvale, California and owned by This meaning derives from the Yahoo race of fictional beings from Gulliver's . Yahoo provided social networking services and user-generated content, as My Web, Yahoo Personals, Yahoo °, Delicious, Flickr, and Yahoo Buzz.
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In response to Google's Gmail, Yahoo began to offer unlimited email storage in The company struggled through , with several large layoffs. Yahoo formally rejected the bid, claiming that it "substantially undervalues" the company and was not in the interest of its shareholders  . He also completely reorganized the company. The announcement reportedly signified a changing trend in the technology industry, as large corporations like Yahoo, Facebook, and Google acquired start-up Internet companies that generated low amounts of revenue as a way in which to connect with sizeable, fast-growing online communities.
The Wall Street Journal stated that the purchase of Tumblr would satisfy Yahoo's need for "a thriving social-networking and communications hub. The company also announced plans to open a San Francisco office in July Japan   ; following the completion of the acquisition, these assets will be retained under the name Altaba, with a new executive team. The deal officially closed on June 13, On the United States Securities and Exchange Commission 's website, they listed the new company as a "non-diversified, closed-end management investment company.
The portal also gave users access to other Yahoo services like Yahoo! As of May , its e-mail service would offer unlimited storage. Answers and Yahoo Games to provide news and related content.
Yahoo provides a personalization service, My Yahoo , which enables users to combine their favorite Yahoo features, content feeds and information onto a single page. On March 31, , Yahoo launched Shine, a site tailored for women seeking online information and advice between the ages of 25 and Mobile services Yahoo Mobile offers services for email, instant messaging, and mobile blogging , as well as information services, searches and alerts.
Services for the camera phone include entertainment and ring tones. Yahoo introduced its Internet search system, called OneSearch, for mobile phones on March 20, The results include news headlines, images from Flickr, business listings, local weather and links to other sites.
Instead of showing only, for example, popular movies or some critical reviews, OneSearch lists local theaters that at the moment are playing the movie, along with user ratings and news headlines regarding the movie. A zip code or city name is required for OneSearch to start delivering local search results. The results of a Web search are listed on a single page and are prioritized into categories.
Shopping, Yahoo Autos, Yahoo Real Estate and Yahoo Travel , which enables users to gather relevant information and make commercial transactions and purchases online. Yahoo Auctions were discontinued in except for Asia. Following the closure of a "beta" version on April 30, , the Yahoo Publisher Network was relaunched as an advertising tool that allows online publishers to monetize their websites through the use of site-relevant advertisements.
It allows advertisers to bid for search terms to trigger their ads on search results pages. The system considers bids, ad quality, clickthrough rates and other factors in ranking ads. Through Panama, Yahoo aims to provide more relevant search results to users, a better overall experience, and to increase monetization. Yahoo Next Yahoo Next was an incubation ground for future Yahoo technologies currently undergoing testing.
It contained forums for Yahoo users to give feedback to assist in the development of these future Yahoo technologies. The price, as Yahoo explained, depends on whether the query is of web, image, news or other information. Yahoo Meme Main article: Yahoo Meme Yahoo Meme was a beta social service, similar to the popular social networking sites Twitter and Jaiku.
Connect enables individuals to leave comments in online publication boards by using their Yahoo ID, instead of having to register with individual publications. Yahoo Axis Yahoo Axis is a desktop web browser extension and mobile browser for iOS devices created and developed by Yahoo.
The browser made its public debut on May 23, The service was shut down in October along with other Yahoo services as part of the Microsoft and Yahoo search deal. The name SearchMonkey is an homage to Greasemonkey. Officially the product name has no space and two capital letters. At one point it was the third-most-browsed site on the World Wide Web. As men lost their primeval glory, distinctions of class arose, and they entered into agreements with one another, accepting the institution of private property and the family.
With this theft, murder, adultery, and other crime began, and so the people met together and decided to appoint one man from among them to maintain order in return for a share of the produce of their fields and herds.
He was called "the Great Chosen One" Mahasammata , and he received the title of raja because he pleased the people. The Buddhist vinaya also reflects social contracts expected of the monks; one such instance is when the people of a certain town complained about monks felling saka trees, the Buddha tells his monks that they must stop and give way to social norms.
Epicurus in the fourth century BCE seemed to have had a strong sense of social contract, with justice and law being rooted in mutual agreement and advantage, as evidenced by these lines, among others, from his Principal Doctrines see also Epicurean ethics: Natural justice is a pledge of reciprocal benefit, to prevent one man from harming or being harmed by another.
Those animals which are incapable of making binding agreements with one another not to inflict nor suffer harm are without either justice or injustice; and likewise for those peoples who either could not or would not form binding agreements not to inflict nor suffer harm. There never was such a thing as absolute justice, but only agreements made in mutual dealings among men in whatever places at various times providing against the infliction or suffering of harm.
All of these groups were led to articulate notions of popular sovereignty by means of a social covenant or contract, and all of these arguments began with proto-"state of nature" arguments, to the effect that the basis of politics is that everyone is by nature free of subjection to any government.
These arguments, however, relied on a corporatist theory found in Roman law, according to which "a populus" can exist as a distinct legal entity.
Thus, these arguments held that a group of people can join a government because it has the capacity to exercise a single will and make decisions with a single voice in the absence of sovereign authority—a notion rejected by Hobbes and later contract theorists.
Philosophers[ edit ] Hugo Grotius [ edit ] In the early 17th century, Grotius — introduced the modern idea that individuals had natural rights that enabled self-preservation, employing this idea as a basis for moral consensus in the face of religious diversity and the rise of natural science. He seeks to find a parsimonious basis for a moral beginning for society, a kind of natural law that everyone could accept.
He goes so far as to say in his On the Law of War and Peace that even if we were to concede what we cannot concede without the utmost wickedness, namely that there is no God, these laws would still hold. The idea was considered incendiary since it suggested that power can ultimately go back to the individuals if the political society that they have set up forfeits the purpose for which it was originally established, which is to preserve themselves.
In other words, individual persons are sovereign. Grotius says that the people are sui juris under their own jurisdiction. People have rights as human beings, but there is a delineation of those rights because of what is possible for everyone to accept morally; everyone has to accept that each person as an individual is entitled to try to preserve himself.
Each person should, therefore, avoid doing harm to, or interfering with, another, and any breach of these rights should be punished. Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan [ edit ] Main article: Leviathan Hobbes book The first modern philosopher to articulate a detailed contract theory was Thomas Hobbes — According to Hobbes, the lives of individuals in the state of nature were "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short", a state in which self-interest and the absence of rights and contracts prevented the "social", or society.
Life was "anarchic" without leadership or the concept of sovereignty. Individuals in the state of nature were apolitical and asocial. This state of nature is followed by the social contract.
The social contract was an "occurrence" during which individuals came together and ceded some of their individual rights so that others would cede theirs.
Human life was thus no longer "a war of all against all". The state system, which grew out of the social contract, was, however, also anarchic without leadership. Just as the individuals in the state of nature had been sovereigns and thus guided by self-interest and the absence of rights, so states now acted in their self-interest in competition with each other. Just like the state of nature, states were thus bound to be in conflict because there was no sovereign over and above the state more powerful capable of imposing some system such as social-contract laws on everyone by force.
Indeed, Hobbes' work helped to serve as a basis for the realism theories of international relations, advanced by E. Carr and Hans Morgenthau. Hobbes wrote in Leviathan that humans "we" need the "terrour of some Power" otherwise humans will not heed the law of reciprocity , " in summe doing to others, as wee would be done to".
Locke believed that individuals in a state of nature would be bound morally, by the Law of Nature, not to harm each other in their lives or possessions. Without government to defend them against those seeking to injure or enslave them, Locke further believed people would have no security in their rights and would live in fear. Individuals, to Locke, would only agree to form a state that would provide, in part, a "neutral judge", acting to protect the lives, liberty, and property of those who lived within it.
Locke argued that a government's legitimacy comes from the citizens' delegation to the government of their absolute right of violence reserving the inalienable right of self-defense or "self-preservation" , along with elements of other rights e.
Although Rousseau wrote that the British were perhaps at the time the freest people on earth, he did not approve of their representative government. Rousseau believed that liberty was possible only where there was direct rule by the people as a whole in lawmaking, where popular sovereignty was indivisible and inalienable. But he also maintained that the people often did not know their "real will", and that a proper society would not occur until a great leader "the Legislator" arose to change the values and customs of the people, likely through the strategic use of religion.
Rousseau's political theory differs in important ways from that of Locke and Hobbes. Rousseau's collectivism is most evident in his development of the "luminous conception" which he credited to Denis Diderot of the general will. Rousseau argues a citizen cannot pursue his true interest by being an egoist but must instead subordinate himself to the law created by the citizenry acting as a collective. Each of us puts his person and all his power in common under the supreme direction of the general will; and in a body we receive each member as an indivisible part of the whole.
Thus, the law, inasmuch as it is created by the people acting as a body, is not a limitation of individual freedom, but rather its expression.
Thus, enforcement of laws, including criminal law , is not a restriction on individual liberty: Because laws represent the restraints of civil freedom, they represent the leap made from humans in the state of nature into civil society. In this sense, the law is a civilizing force, and therefore Rousseau believed that the laws that govern a people helped to mold their character.
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