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Y - to calculate the number of complete years. YM - to get the difference between the months, ignoring years. MD - to get the difference between the days, ignoring years and months. And then, concatenate the 3 DATEDIF functions in a single formula, separate the numbers returned by each function with commas, and define what each number means. For more formula examples such as calculating age at a particular date or in a certain year, please check out the following tutorial: How to calculate age in Excel - formula examples.
Calculating leap years in Excel As you know, nearly every 4th year has an extra day on February 29 and is called a leap year. In Microsoft Excel sheets, you can determine whether a certain date belongs to a leap year or a common year in a variety of ways.
I'm going to demonstrate just a couple of formulas, which in my opinion are easiest to understand. Check if February has 29 days This is a very obvious test. Since February has 29 days in leap years, we calculate the number of days in month 2 of a given year and compare it with number The DAY function extracts the day number from this date, and we compare that number with If you already have a list of dates in your Excel worksheet and you want to know which ones are leap years, then incorporate the YEAR function in the formula to extract a year from a date: The results returned by the formula are as follows: Check if the year has days This is another obvious test that hardly requires any explanation.
We use one DATE function to return 1-Jan of the next year, another DATE function to get 1-Jan of this year, subtract the latter from the former and check if the difference equals to If you are curious to know other solutions, you can check the method suggested by Microsoft. As usual, Microsoft guys are not looking for easy ways, are they?
And you can find 14 other formulas on this blog. The age at diagnosis varied from 47 years to 63 years, with the mean age being All of the cases of TLS were associated with chemotherapy. TLS developed as early as 2 days 46 to as long as 2 weeks after initiation of chemotherapy.
It is important to note that most reports did not include baseline laboratory parameters for their patient. Some reports did mention elevation of baseline creatinine and uric acid were elevated, 54 as well as baseline phosphorus 52 and LDH. Baseline elevation of LDH and likely potassium, phosphorus, creatinine, and uric acid is suggestive of increased risk for TLS.
It is important to consider preventive measures such as hydration and urate lowering therapy in patients with advanced gynecological cancers. A summary of reported cases of TLS in patients with gynecological cancers is presented in Supplementary Table 4. Tumor lysis syndrome in genitourinary and urological cancers This section includes cancers originating from the genitourinary system including testicular tumors in men. For greater coverage on general topics related to these cancers, the reader is referred to a good review source.
Among those found, there were five cases of prostate adenocarcinoma. All of patients with the prostate cancer had evidence of metastatic disease and four of them had hormone refractory cancer.
One patient developed TLS after the initiation of radiation therapy for bone metastasis. We identified five published reports, 35 , with one describing three patients and another two patients, 62 , 63 making the total number of patients eight. There were five cases of seminoma, 35 , with one being of extratesticular origin. Nevertheless, it is important to note that Kattan et al. Two out of four patients were females. Nevertheless, two patients had elevated baseline levels of creatinine, 66 , 69 one patient had baseline increase in uric acid and one had elevated baseline levels of LDH.
A summary of reported cases of TLS in patients with genitourinary cancers is presented in Supplementary Table 5. Tumor lysis syndrome in patients with gastrointestinal cancers Gastrointestinal malignancies include cancers originating from the esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder and biliary tree and pancreatic cancer. We will separately review the association between TLS and hepatic cancers, colorectal cancers and finally stomach and miscellaneous gastrointestinal tumors.
Tumor lysis syndrome in patients with hepatic malignancies We identified 15 published reports on the association between liver cancers and TLS. There were two pediatric cases of hepatoblastoma female and male children aged 7 months associated with the development of TLS. Baseline elevation of LDH, 73 , 74 , 79 potassium, 74 uric acid, 75 and creatinine, 73 , 80 was noted.
Other pertinent laboratory values were either normal or not reported. Five cases of TLS occurred after transarterial chemoembolization of hepatocellular carcinoma.
One case of TLS occurred within 48 hours after radiofrequency ablation. Tumor lysis syndrome in patients with colorectal cancers We identified seven published cases of TLS among patients with colorectal malignancies using the search algorithm described above. Some patients had baseline elevation of LDH, 85 , potassium, 85 phosphorus, 85 uric acid, 85 , 89 and creatinine.
It is also important to note that some reports did not provide any baseline laboratory values and some provided only a few. There was one case of spontaneous TLS. However, one patient underwent pelvic radiation and then chemotherapy.
A summary of reported cases of TLS in patients with colorectal cancers is presented in Supplementary Table 7. Tumor lysis syndrome in patients with gastric malignancies, gastrointestinal stromal tumors and other gastrointestinal cancers We identified seven published cases of TLS among patients with gastric, gastrointestinal and miscellaneous gastrointestinal malignancies using the search algorithm described above.
The age ranged from 36 to 69 years with the mean age being 50 years. It is important to mention that some patients had elevated baseline levels of LDH, and uric acid. Two cases of metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors complicated by TLS were reported. One case of metastatic pancreatic cancer complicated by TLS was reported in a 40 year old male. The patient developed TLS 2 days after the initiation of chemotherapy. A summary of reported cases of TLS in patients with gastric malignancies, gastrointestinal stromal tumors and miscellaneous gastrointestinal tumors is presented in Supplementary Table 8.
Tumor lysis syndrome in patients with neurological malignancies We identified four published case reports of TLS among patients with neurological malignancies using the search algorithm described above. There were two cases of metastatic medulloblastoma associated with the development of TLS.
The second patient was treated with cisplatin and etoposide. Five other cases of TLS were reported in patients with metastatic neuroblastoma. The age ranged from 2 day old to 22 months. One patient was noted to have elevated LDH at baseline.
A summary of reported cases of TLS in patients with neurological malignancies is presented in Supplementary Table 9. Tumor lysis syndrome in patients with skin cancers We identified nine published cases of TLS among patients with skin malignancies using the search algorithm described above.
One patient with Merkel cell carcinoma was a 65 year old female with baseline elevation of LDH, mild elevation of creatinine there was evidence of hydronephrosis and uric acid. The patient was hydrated in conjunction with chemotherapy; nevertheless, they developed TLS on the third day after initiation of chemotherapy. Five patients were males.
TLS occurrence ranged from several hours to 4 days after initiation of treatment. A summary of reported cases of TLS in patients with dermatological malignancies is presented in Supplementary Table Tumor lysis syndrome in sarcomas We identified four published reports of TLS among patients with sarcomas using the search algorithm described above.
Also, it is important to note that we included one case of uterine leiomyosarcoma into the section of gynecological cancers, 54 and gastrointestinal stromal tumors into the section of gastrointestinal cancers. There were three males and two females. All of the patients had evidence of advanced and metastatic disease. One patient was reported to have normal baseline laboratory values, one had elevated baseline values of creatinine and phosphorus, and another one had baseline values for elevated levels LDH.
Two cases were claimed to represent spontaneous TLS. However, the phosphorus levels were not high enough to meet the criteria for pediatric TLS.
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Since February has 29 days in leap years, we calculate the number of days in month 2 of a given year and compare it with number Seven of the reported patients were males. If you are curious to know other solutions, you can check the method suggested by Microsoft. TLS occurrence ranged from several hours to 4 days after initiation of treatment.