These are some of the ways teens date in other countries of the world. Afghanistan. Dating is rare in Afghanistan because most marriages are arranged by. Traditional marriage customs vary by ethnic group, although many customs are transethnic. Arranged marriages are the norm, although this practice is becoming . Guide to Spain and Spanish culture, society, language, etiquette, manners, customs and protocol. Many of the holidays in Spain are based on religion. As in all countries that celebrate Easter, the dates vary each year between the last two.
Dating customs in different cultures and beliefs - Orientation
There were also camps called Zigeunerlager that were intended just for the Roma population. It is estimated that up to , Roma died in the Holocaust. Also, because the Roma people live scattered among other populations in many different regions, their ethnic culture has been influenced by interaction with the culture of their surrounding population.
Nevertheless, there are some unique and special aspects to Romani culture. Spiritual beliefs The Roma do not follow a single faith; rather, they often adopt the predominant religion of the country where they are living, according to Open Society, and describe themselves as "many stars scattered in the sight of God. The Roma live by a complex set of rules that govern things such as cleanliness, purity, respect, honor and justice.
These rules are referred to as what is "Rromano. Some Romani words have been borrowed by English speakers, including "pal" brother and "lollipop" from lolo-phabai-cosh, red apple on a stick. Hierarchy Traditionally, anywhere from 10 to several hundred extended families form bands, or kumpanias, which travel together in caravans.
Smaller alliances, called vitsas, are formed within the bands and are made up of families who are brought together through common ancestry. Each band is led by a voivode, who is elected for life. This person is their chieftain. In some groups, the elders resolve conflicts and administer punishment, which is based upon the concept of honor. Punishment can mean a loss of reputation and at worst expulsion from the community, according to the RSG.
Roma mom and kids. For Rroma, the basic 'unit' is constituted by the family and the lineage. A typical household unit may include the head of the family and his wife, their married sons and daughters-in-law with their children, and unmarried young and adult children.
Romani typically marry young — often in their teens — and many marriages are arranged. Weddings are typically very elaborate, involving very large and colorful dress for the bride and her many attendants.
Hospitality Typically, the Roma love opulence. Roma women tend to wear gold jewelry and headdresses decorated with coins. Homes will often have displays of religious icons, with fresh flowers and gold and silver ornaments. These displays are considered honorable and a token of good fortune.
Sharing one's success is also considered honorable, and hosts will make a display of hospitality by offering food and gifts. Generosity is seen as an investment in the network of social relations that a family may need to rely on in troubled times. Leadership and Political Officials. Emperor Haile Selassie ruled from until During his lifetime, Selassie built massive infrastructure and created the first constitution Micromanaging a nation caught up with the emperor in old age, and he was deposed by the communist Derge regime led by Lieutenant Colonel Mengistu Haile Mariam.
Mengistu assumed power as head of state after having his two predecessors killed. Ethiopia then became a totalitarian state financed by the Soviet Union and assisted by Cuba. Between and , thousands of suspected Derge oppositionists were killed. The election of a member constituent assembly was held in June , and the adoption of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia's constitution ensued.
Elections for the national parliament and regional legislatures were held in May and June of , although most opposition parties boycotted the elections. The EPRDF, along with 50 other registered political parties most of which are small and ethnically based , comprise Ethiopia's political parties. Because of that, after independence Workers installing a water pipeline for irrigation in Hitosa. Social Problems and Control.
Ethiopia is safer than the neighboring countries, particularly in urban areas. Ethnic issues play a role in political life, but this does not usually result in violence. Christians and Muslims live together peacefully. Theft occurs infrequently in Addis Ababa and almost never involves weapons. Robbers tend to work in groups, and pickpocketing is the usual form of theft. Homelessness in the capital is a serious social problem, especially among the youth.
Many street children resort to theft to feed themselves. Police officers usually apprehend thieves but rarely prosecute and often work with them, splitting the bounty.
During the Derge regime, troups numbered around one-quarter of a million. Since the early s, when the Derge was overthrown, the ENDF has been in transition from a rebel force to a professional military organization trained in demining, humanitarian and peacekeeping operations, and military justice. From June until the summer of , Ethiopia was involved in the largest war on the African continent with its northern neighbor, Eritrea.
The war was essentially a border conflict. Eritrea was occupying the towns of Badme and Zalambasa, which Ethiopia claimed was sovereign territory. The conflict can be traced to Emperor Menelik, who sold Eritrea to the Italians in the late nineteenth century. Large-scale fighting occurred in and with no change in the combatants' positions.
During the winter months, fighting was minimal because of the rains, which make it difficult to move armaments. In the summer of , Ethiopia achieved large-scale victories and marched through the contested border area into Eritrean territory. After these victories, both nations signed a peace treaty, which called for United Nations peacekeeping troops to monitor the contested area and professional cartographers to demarcate the border.
Ethiopian troops withdrew from undisputed Eritrean territory after the treaty was signed. Social Welfare and Change Programs Traditional associations are the major sources of social welfare. There are many different types of social welfare programs in different parts of the country; these programs have religious, political, familial, or other bases for their formation.
Two of the most prevalent are the iddir and debo systems. An iddir is an association that provides financial assistance and other forms of aid for people in the same neighborhood or occupation and between friends or kin. This institution became prevalent with the formation of urban society.
The main objective of an iddir is to assist families financially during times of stress, such as illness, death, and property losses from fire or theft. Recently, iddirs have been involved in community development, including the construction of schools and roads. The head of a family who belongs to an iddir contributes a certain amount of money every month to benefit individuals in times of emergency.
The most widespread social welfare association in rural areas is the debo. If a farmer is having difficulty tending his fields, he may invite his neighbors to help on a specific date.
In return, the farmer must provide food and drink for the day and contribute his labor when others in the same debo require help. The debo is not restricted to agriculture but is also prevalent in housing construction. Nongovernmental Organizations and Other Associations Nongovernmental organizations NGOs are the main sources of aid to alleviate rural poverty.
Drought and war have been the two biggest problems in recent years. NGOs played a crucial role in famine relief in Welo and Tigre during the — and — famines through the coordination of the Christian Relief and Development Association. When the EPRDF took power in , a large number of donor organizations supported and funded rehabilitation and development activities.
Environmental protection and food-based programs take precedence today, although development and preventive health care are also activities on which NGO focuses. Traditionally, labor has been divided by gender, with authority given to the senior male in a household. Men are responsible for plowing, harvesting, the trading of goods, the slaughtering of animals, herding, the building of houses, and the cutting of wood. Women are responsible for the domestic sphere and help the men with some activities on the farm.
Women are in charge of cooking, brewing beer, cutting hops, buying and selling spices, making butter, collecting and carrying wood, and carrying water. The gender division in urban areas is less pronounced than it is in the countryside.
Many women work outside of the home, and there tends to be a greater awareness of gender inequality. Women in urban areas are still responsible, with or without a career, for the domestic space. Employment at a baseline level is fairly equivalent, but men tend to be promoted much faster and more often. The Relative Status of Women and Men.
Gender inequality is still prevalent. Men often spend their free time socializing outside the home, while women take care of the household. If a man participates in domestic activities such as cooking and child rearing, he may become a social outcast. The education of boys is stressed more than that of girls, who are supposed to help with household work.
Girls are restricted from leaving the home and engaging in social activities with friends much more than boys are. Marriage, Family, and Kinship Marriage. Traditional marriage customs vary by ethnic group, although many customs are transethnic. Arranged marriages are the norm, although this practice is becoming much less common, especially in urban areas.
The presentation of a dowry from the male's family to the female's family is common. The amount is not fixed and varies with the wealth of the families. The dowry may include livestock, money, or other socially valued items. The proposal usually involves elders, who travel from the groom's house to the parents of the bride to ask for the marriage.
The elders are traditionally the individuals who decide when and where the ceremony takes place. Both the bride's and groom's families prepare food and drink for the ceremony by brewing wine and beer and cooking food.
A great deal of food is prepared for the occasion, especially meat dishes. Christians often wed in Orthodox churches, and a variety of wedding types exist. In the takelil type, the bride and groom participate in a special ceremony and agree never to divorce.
This type of commitment has become rare in recent years. Wedding garb in the cities is very western: The basic family structure is much larger than the typical Western nuclear unit. The oldest male is usually the head of the household and is in charge of decision making. Men, usually having the primary income, control the family economically and distribute money. Women are in charge of domestic life and have significantly more contact with the children. The father is seen as an authority figure.
Children are socially required to care for their parents, and so there are often three to four generations in a household. With the advent of urban living, however, this pattern is changing, and children often live far from their families and have a much harder time supporting them.
Urbanites have a responsibility to send money to their families in rural areas and often try their best to relocate their families to the cities. Inheritance laws follow a fairly regular pattern.
Before an elder passes away he or she orally states his or her wishes for the disposal of possessions. Children and living spouses are typically An Ethiopian woman looking at fabric in Fasher. Land, although not officially owned by individuals, is inheritable. Men are more privileged then females and usually receive the most prized properties and equipment, while women tend to inherit items associated with the domestic sphere.
Descent is traced through both the mother's and father's families, but the male line is more valued than the female. It is customary for a child to take the father's first name as his or her last name. In rural areas, villages are often composed of kin groups that offer support during difficult times. The kin group in which one participates tends to be in the male line. Elders are respected, especially men, and are regarded as the source of a lineage.
In general, an elder or groups of elders are responsible for settling disputes within a kin group or clan. Children are raised by the extended family and community. It is the primary duty of the mother to care for the children as part of her domestic duties. If the mother is not available, the Colorfully robed deacons at the Timkat Festival in Lalibela.
In urban society, where both parents often work, babysitters are employed and the father takes a more active role in child care. If a child is born out of wedlock, whoever the women claims is the father is required by law to support the child economically. If parents get divorced, a child five years old or older is asked with whom he or she wants to live. Child Rearing and Education. During early childhood, children have the greatest exposure to their mothers and female relatives.
At around the age of five, especially in urban areas, children start attending school if their families can afford the fees.
In rural areas, schools are few and children do farm work. This means a very low percentage of rural youth attend school. The government is trying to alleviate this problem by building accessible schools in rural areas. The patriarchal structure of society is reflected in the stress on education for boys over girls. Women face discrimination problems as well as physical abuse in school.
Also, the belief still exists that females are less competent then males and that education is wasted on them. Children who do well in elementary school go on to secondary school. It is felt that missionary schools are superior to government schools. Fees are required for missionary schools, although they are reduced considerably for religious adherents. University is free, but admission is extremely competitive. Every secondary student takes a standardized examination to get into college.
The acceptance rate is approximately 20 percent of all the individuals who take the tests. There is a quota for the various departments, and only a certain number of individuals are enrolled in their desired majors. The criterion is the grades of first-year students; those with the highest marks get the first choice. In , enrollment at Addis Ababa University was approximately 21, students.
Etiquette Greeting takes the form of multiple kisses on both cheeks and a plethora of exchanged pleasantries. Any hint of superiority is treated with contempt. Age is a factor in social behavior, and the elderly are treated with the utmost respect.
When an elderly person or guest enters a room, it is customary to stand until that person is seated. Dining etiquette is also important. One must always wash the hands before a meal, since all food is eaten with the hands from a communal dish. It is customary for the guest to initiate eating. During a meal, it is proper form to pull injera only from the space directly in front of oneself. Depleted portions are replaced quickly. During meals, participation in conversation is considered polite; complete attention to the meal is thought to be impolite.
There has been religious freedom for centuries in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian Orthodox Church is the oldest sub-Saharan African church, and the first mosque in Africa was built in the Tigre province. Christianity and Islam have coexisted peacefully for hundreds of years, and the Christian kings of Ethiopia gave Muhammad refuge during his persecution in southern Arabia, causing the Prophet to declare Ethiopia exempt from Muslim holy wars. It is not uncommon for Christians and Muslims to visit each other's house of worship to seek health or prosperity.
It was the official religion during the reign of the monarchy and is currently the unofficial religion. This has led to many unique characteristics of the church, which is considered the most Judaic formal Christian church.
The Ethiopian Orthodox Church lays claim to the original Ark of the Covenant, and replicas called tabotat are housed in a central sanctuary in all churches; it is the tabot that consecrates a church. The Ethiopian Orthodox Church is the only established church that has rejected the doctrine of Pauline Christianity, which states that the Old Testament lost its binding force after the coming of Jesus.
The Old Testament focus of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church includes dietary laws similar to the kosher tradition, circumcision after the eighth day of birth, and a Saturday sabbath. Judaism historically was a major religion, although the vast majority of Ethiopian Jews called Beta Israel reside in Israel today. The Beta Israel were politically powerful at certain times.
Ethiopian Jews often were persecuted during the last few hundred years; that resulted in massive secret airlifts in and by the Israeli military. Islam has been a significant religion in Ethiopia since the eighth century but has been viewed as the religion of the "outside" by many Christians and scholars.
Non-Muslims traditionally have interpreted Ethiopian Islam as hostile. This prejudice is a result of the dominance of Christianity. Polytheistic religions are found in the lowlands, which also have received Protestant missionaries. These Evangelical churches are fast growing, but Orthodox Christianity and Islam claim the adherence of 85 to 90 percent of the population.
This tradition was abandoned in the s when the Patriarch was chosen by Emperor Haile Selassie from within the Ethiopian Church. The tradition of the Patriarch being sent from Egypt began in the fourth century. They concluded that Frumentious would best serve in that role and he was anointed 'Abba Salama father of Peace and became the first Patriarch of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. Within the Orthodox Church there are several categories of clergy, including priests, deacons, monks, and lay-priests.
It was estimated in the s that between 10 and 20 percent of all adult Amhara and Tigrean men were priests. These figures are much less extraordinary when one considers that at that time there were 17, to 18, churches in the Amhara and Tigrean regions in the north-central highlands.
Rituals and Holy Places. The majority of celebrations are religious in nature. During all religious holidays, adherents go to their respective places of worship. Many Christian holidays are also state holidays. Death and the Afterlife. Death is a part of daily life as famine, AIDS, and malaria take many lives. Three days of mourning for the dead is the norm.
The dead are buried the day they die, and special Taylors' Street in Harrar. Close living conditions, poor sanitation, and lack of medical facilities has led to an increase of communicable diseases.
Christians bury their dead on the grounds of the church, and Muslims do the same at the mosque. Muslims read from religious texts, while Christians tend to cry for their dead during the mourning period. Medicine and Health Care Communicable diseases are the primary illnesses. Acute respiratory infections such as tuberculosis, upper respiratory infections, and malaria are the Ministry of Health's priority health problems.
These afflictions accounted for 17 percent of deaths and 24 percent of hospital admissions in and Poor sanitation, malnutrition, and a shortage of health facilities are some of the causes of communicable diseases. AIDS has been a serious health problem in recent years. AIDS awareness and condom usage are increasing, however, especially among the urban and educated populations.
This places the HIV-infected population in at approximately three million. The urban HIV-positive population is drastically higher than the rural at 21 percent versus under 5 percent, respectively, as of Eighty-eight percent of all infections result from heterosexual transmission, mainly from prostitution and multiple sex partners.
The goals are to inform and educate the general population and increase awareness about AIDS. Prevention of transmission through safer sexual practices, condom usage, and appropriate screening for blood transfusion are goals of the NACP.
Government health spending has risen. The absolute level of health expenditure, however, remains far below the average for other sub-Saharan African countries. The health system is primarily curative despite the fact that most health problems are amenable to preventive action. In , Ethiopia had 1, physicians, pharmacists, 3, nurses, and one hospital for every , people.
The physician-to-population ratio was 1: These ratios are very low in comparison to other sub-Saharan developing countries, although the distribution is highly unbalanced in favor of urban centers. For example, 62 percent of the doctors and 46 percent of the nurses were found in Addis Ababa, where 5 percent of the population resides. The Arts and Humanities Literature. The classical language of Ge'ez, which has evolved into Amharic and Tigrean, is one of the four extinct languages but is the only indigenous writing system in Africa that is still in use.
Ge'ez is still spoken in Orthodox Church services. Ge'ez was also the first Semitic language to employ a vowel system. Many apocryphal texts such as the Book of Enoch, the Book of Jubilees, and the Ascension of Isaiah have been preserved in their entirety only in Ge'ez.
Even though these texts were not included in the Biblical canon, among Biblical scholars and Ethiopian Christians they are regarded as significant to an understanding of the origin and development of Christianity. Religious art, especially Orthodox Christian, has been a significant part of the national culture for hundreds of years.
Illuminated Bibles and manuscripts have been dated to the twelfth century, and the eight-hundred-year-old churches in Lalibela contain Christian paintings, manuscripts, and stone relief. Wood carving and sculpture are very common in the southern lowlands, especially among the Konso. A fine arts school has been established in Addis Ababa that teaches painting, sculpture, etching, and lettering.
Christian music is believed to have been established by Saint Yared in the sixth century and is sung in Ge'ez, the liturgical language. The traditional dance, eskesta, consists of rhythmic shoulder movements and usually is accompanied by the kabaro , a drum made from wood and animal skin, and the masinqo, a single-stringed violin with an A-shaped bridge that is played with a small bow.
Foreign influences exist in the form of Afro-pop, reggae, and hip-hop. The State of the Physical and Social Sciences The university system fosters academic research in cultural and physical anthropology, archaeology, history, political science, linguistics, and theology. A large percentage of the leading scholars in these fields went to the University of Addis Ababa.
A lack of funding and resources has constrained the development of the university system. The library system is inferior, and computers and Internet access are not available at the university. Bibliography Addis Ababa University. A Brief Profile , A Glimpse of Ethiopia, Guide to Ethiopia, Kebra Nagast [The Glory of Kings], Commodities in Cultural Perspectives, Arjun Appadurai, ed.
Precolonial Cities and States in Tropical Africa: An Archaeological Perspective, Donham, Donald, and Wendy James, eds. The Southern Marches of Imperial Ethiopia, The Construction of Nationhood: Ethnicity, Religion and Nationalism, The Case of Emergent Oromo Studies. The Case of Actionaid Ethiopia. The Beta Israel Falasha in Ethiopia, A Short History of the Ethiopian Jews, Tradition and Innovation in Ethiopian Culture, The Evolution of a Multiethnic Society, A Country Study, , http: A History of Ethiopia, The Case of Ethiopia's Based Federalism.
A Study in Northern Ethiopia. Health and Health Related Indicators: A Social History of Ethiopia, An Introduction to Country and People, Ethiopia and the Bible,
Husband and wife generally worked together, sometimes participating in different tasks related to agricultural labor. Contemporary African culture is a mixture of traditional elements and alien features. When it comes to deciding when to sleep with someone, again there are no rules. Nongovernmental Organizations and Other Associations About half the people belong to a voluntary association, including political parties, and there are , associations.