The topography of South America has been described to resemble a bowl The continent is mostly made up of lowlands, highlands, seven of them more than 1, miles in length. (or plateau) is a cold place, and one of the few deserts on Earth that doesn't receive any rain. The boundaries between the continents of Earth are generally a matter of geographical All of these Mediterranean islands are actually located on the African plate, . (Definitions of "continents" are a physical and cultural construct dating back The border between North America and South America is at some point on. North America and South America are named after Italian navigator Plains, to the U.S.-Mexico border, coincided with the extent of Plains Indian communities. Yet Barrio Chino counts 3, families of Chinese heritage within its boundaries. affected the relationships between North American countries.
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Continent of south america location extent and boundaries in dating - Where is South America ?
This is the convention used by Roman era authors such as Posidonius ,  Strabo  and Ptolemy. But maps produced during the 16th to 18th centuries tended to differ in how to continue the boundary beyond the Don bend at Kalach-na-Donu where it is closest to the Volga, now joined with it by the Volga—Don Canal , into territory not described in any detail by the ancient geographers.
Philip Johan von Strahlenberg in was the first to depart from the classical Don boundary by drawing the line along the Volga , following the Volga north until the Samara Bend , along Obshchy Syrt the drainage divide between Volga and Ural and then north along Ural Mountains. The atlas published by the Russian Academy of Sciences has the boundary follow the Don beyond Kalach as far as Serafimovich before cutting north towards Arkhangelsk , while other 18th- to 19th-century mapmakers such as John Cary followed Strahlenberg's prescription.
To the south, the Kuma—Manych Depression was identified circa by a German naturalist, Peter Simon Pallas , as a valley that, once upon a time, connected the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea,   and subsequently was proposed as a natural boundary between continents.
By the midth century, there were three main conventions, one following the Don, the Volga—Don Canal and the Volga, the other following the Kuma—Manych Depression to the Caspian and then the Ural River, and the third abandoning the Don altogether, following the Greater Caucasus watershed to the Caspian.
The question was still treated as a "controversy" in geographical literature of the s, with Douglas Freshfield advocating the Caucasus crest boundary as the "best possible", citing support from various "modern geographers".
Transcontinental states, European territory Transcontinental states, Asian territory The modern border between Asia and Europe remains a historical and cultural construct, defined only by convention. Man and Culture in a Counterfeit Paradise. However, recent archeological findings have suggested that the region was densely populated.
From the s, numerous geoglyphs have been discovered on deforested land dating between 0— AD. Additional finds have led to conclusions that there were highly developed and populous cultures in the forests, organized as Pre-Columbian civilizations. It is believed that the civilization was later devastated by the spread of infectious diseases from Europe, such as smallpox , to which the natives had no immunity.
It is now widely accepted that these soils are a product of indigenous soil management. The development of this soil enabled agriculture and silviculture to be conducted in the previously hostile environment. Large portions of the Amazon rainforest are therefore probably the result of centuries of human management, rather than naturally occurring as has previously been supposed. Among those remains were evidence of constructed roads, bridges and large plazas. Donnan in association with the National Geographic Society.
Knowledge about the Moche has been derived mostly from their ceramic pottery, which is carved with representations of their daily lives.
They practiced human sacrifice, had blood-drinking rituals, and their religion incorporated non-procreative sexual practices such as fellatio. Known as Tawantin suyu, or "the land of the four regions," in Quechua , the Inca civilization was highly distinct and developed. Inca rule extended to nearly a hundred linguistic or ethnic communities, some 9 to 14 million people connected by a 25,kilometer road system.
Cities were built with precise, unmatched stonework, constructed over many levels of mountain terrain. Terrace farming was a useful form of agriculture. There is evidence of excellent metalwork and successful skull surgery in Inca civilization. The Inca had no written language, but used quipu , a system of knotted strings, to record information. Explorer Christopher Columbus described them at first encounter as a peaceful people, although the Arawak had already dominated other local groups such as the Ciboney.
The Arawak had, however, come under increasing military pressure from the Carib , who are believed to have left the Orinoco river area to settle on islands and the coast of the Caribbean Sea. Over the century leading up to Columbus' arrival in the Caribbean archipelago in , the Carib are believed to have displaced many of the Arawak who previously settled the island chains. The Carib also encroached on Arawak territory in what is modern Guyana. The Carib were skilled boatbuilders and sailors who owed their dominance in the Caribbean basin to their military skills.
The Carib war rituals included cannibalism ; they had a practice of taking home the limbs of victims as trophies. The eastern coastal region is mostly covered with mountains, and in many places, the ocean borders on steep cliffs.
In the northern part, however, there is a relatively flat region that is suitable for agriculture. In the east, the lowlands are mostly covered by the thick tropical rain forest of the Amazon basin. The southern part of the Andes in Peru contain many volcanoes, some of which are still active, and Lake Titicaca, which is shared by Bolivia. Lake Titicaca is remarkable for, among the large lakes with no ocean outlet, Titicaca is the highest in the world.
It is mi km at its largest length and 69 mi km at its largest breadth, which is not quite half as large as Lake Ontario ; but it lies at an altitude of 12, ft 3, m above sea level. Bolivia has an area of , sq mi 1,, sq km , and is the only landlocked country in South America besides Paraguay.
The western part of the country, which borders on Ecuador and Chile, is covered by the Andes Mountains, and like most of this part of the Andes, it contains many active volcanoes. In the southern part of the range, the land becomes more arid, and in many places salt marshes are found.
Among these is Lake Poopo, which lies 12, ft 3, m above sea level. This saline lake is only 10 ft 3 m deep. In the northern part of the range, the land becomes more habitable, and it is here that Lake Titicaca, which is shared with Peru, is found. The eastern lowlands of Bolivia are divided into two distinct regions.
In the north, the fertile Llanos de Mamore is well watered and is thickly covered with vegetation. The southeastern section, called the Gran Chaco , is a semiarid savanna region. Chile is the longest, narrowest country in the world; although it is 2, mi 4, km long, it is only about mi km wide at its greatest width. It encompasses an area of , sq mi , sq km. The Andes divides into two branches along the eastern and western edges of the country. The eastern branch contains the highest of the Andean peaks, Aconcagua, which is 20, ft 6, m , and the highest point on the continent.
The Andes in Chile has the greatest concentration of volcanoes on the continent, containing over 2, active and dormant volcanoes, and the area is plagued by earthquakes. In the western coastal region of north and central Chile, the land meets the ocean in a long line of cliffs which reach about 8, ft 2, m in altitude. The southern section of this coastal mountain range moves offshore, forming a group of about 3, islands extending in a line all the way to Cape Horn , which is the southernmost point on the continent.
The coast in this area is quite remarkable in appearance, having numerous fjords. There are many volcanic islands off the coast of Chile, including the famous Easter Island , which contains some unusual archeological remains.
The southern part of the coastal region of Chile is a temperate area, but in the north it contains the Atacama Desert , which is the longest and driest desert in the world. Iquique, Chile, which lies in this region, is reported to have at one time suffered 14 years without any rain at all.
The dryness of the area is thought to be due to a sudden temperature inversion as clouds move from the cold waters off the shore and encounter the warmth of the continent; this prevents water from precipitating from the clouds when they reach the shoreline.
It has been suggested also that the sudden rise of the Andes Mountains on the coast contributes to this effect. Argentina, the second largest of the South American countries, covers an area of 1,, sq mi 2,, sq km. The Andes Mountains divide western Argentina from Chile, and in the south, known as Tierra de Fuego, this range is still partly covered with glaciers. A large part of Argentina is a region of lowlands and plains. The northern part of the lowlands, called the Chaco, is the hottest region in Argentina.
In the northwestern part of Argentina near the Paraguayan and Brazilian borders, are found the remarkable Iguassa Falls.
As a comparison, Niagara Falls is only 5, ft 1, m wide and — ft 46—50 m high. The greatest part of the lowland plains is called the Pampa, which is humid in the east and semiarid in the west.
The southern highlands of Patagonia, which begins below the Colorado River, is a dry and mostly uninhabited region of plateaus. In the Tierra del Fuego the southernmost extension of the Andes is found. They are mostly glaciated, and many glacial lakes are found here. Where the mountains descend into the sea, the glaciers have shaped them so that the coast has a fjord-like appearance.
The Falkland Islands lie off the eastern coast of Argentina. They are a group of about islands consisting of rolling hills and peat valleys, although there are a few low mountains north of the main islands. The sea around the Falkland Islands is quite shallow, and for this reason they are thought to lie on an extension of the continental shelf.
Paraguay, which has an area of , sq mi , sq km , is completely landlocked. About half of the country is part of the Gran Chaco , a large plain west of the Paraguay River, which also extends into Bolivia and Argentina. The Gran Chaco is swampy in places, but for the most part consists of scrubland with a few isolated patches of forest. East of the Paraguay River, there is another plain which is covered by forest and seasonal marshes.
This region becomes a country of flat plateaus in the easternmost part of Paraguay, most of which are covered with evergreen and deciduous forests.
Uruguay , which is 68, sq mi , sq km in area, is a country bounded by water. To the east it borders the Atlantic Ocean , and there are many lagoons and great expanses of dunes found along the coast.
In the west, Uruguay is bordered by the river Uruguay, and in the south by the La Plata estuary. Most of the country consists of low hills with some forested areas. With an area of 3,, sq mi 8,, sq km , Brazil is by far the largest country in South America, taking up almost half of the land area of the continent. It can be divided into two major geographical regions:
In order not to lose its sovereignty, the Portuguese Court moved the capital from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro , which was the Portuguese Empire 's capital between and and rose the relevance of Brazil within the Portuguese Empire 's framework. Uruguay , which is 68, sq mi , sq km in area, is a country bounded by water.
Geography of South America